The most popular glass making process what is glas

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Glass making process what is glass?

in life, many things and objects are made of glass. So, do you know anything about glass? Do you know how glass is made? Do you know how to make glass? Here is the reason to introduce the glass making process for you

the manufacturing process of glass can be roughly divided into the following five points:

first, raw materials and preparation

the main raw materials are quartz sand (SiO2), soda ash (Na2CO3), calcite (CAO), limestone (CaCO3), boron compound (B2O3) and barium carbonate (BaCO3). Auxiliary raw materials: Orange agent, colorant, emulsion. Fluxing. In terms of formula, each manufacturer should make appropriate adjustments according to specific products. Adding appropriate zinc oxide to the raw material can increase the toughness of the product. Adding an appropriate amount of colored substances to the raw material may make the product colored. For example, adding copper oxide, the product will be green or sea blue: adding cobalt oxide for coloring; The selenium powder is red, and the amount added affects the color depth. Generally, 20% of the clean recycled materials are allowed in the ingredients, and the recycled materials should not be too much, otherwise the product is prone to granular and protruding. Bubble, etc. Before batching into the furnace, all materials must be mixed together and fully mixed

second point: the melt

mixture is added into the furnace for high-temperature melting. The temperature in the furnace depends on different products, generally around degrees Celsius. The fuel contains heavy oil. Electricity, etc. Generally, there are two types of Furnaces: crucible and tank furnace. Generally, the crucible has only one port, and the feed and discharge ports are at this port. The tank furnace may be separated from the feed and discharge ports (depending on the scale of the plant). This furnace with only one port usually needs to be fed at night and then sealed. Generally, the newly added materials can be used only after melting for 8 hours, Therefore, in the past, most enterprises can only produce type I polyurethane waterproof coating materials with low tensile properties, which can not be added at any time. They often wait until the materials have been used up, so the materials for one cylinder can be used for one day, about liters

third point: glass forming

general forming methods include blowing (machine blowing, manual blowing), pressing, centrifugal rotation, and firing (auxiliary function). Pig iron castings are generally used for glass molds. The quality of the mold will also affect the product quality, because some iron with sand will produce rough products with convex particles, which are easy to remove iron filings and stick to the products at high temperatures. General molds have several exhaust holes, and the exhaust holes are few, which generally does not affect the forming effect of the product. For molds with good exhaust effect, the product pattern and letters are relatively clear, and the size of the mold joint will also affect the weight of the product edge. The molds must be preheated before use, otherwise the newly produced products are easy to crack. The molten feeding mold has two types of automatic feeding: automatic feeding and manual operation. The feeding amount of each product is adjusted before production. The scope of the wood-based panel testing machine is mainly to carry out the required experiments on plywood and other man-made panels. The manual operation of a major experimental detection equipment depends entirely on the experience of workers, so the amount of manual operation is very important. Too much is easy to make the edge too thick. If there are too few, the product may be incomplete. Due to the problem of manual cutting control, it is easy to have problems such as the thickness of the edge and bottom of the product, and the weight of the product is inconsistent. The blown product is made by air pressure, so it has a great relationship with the air pressure. If the air pressure is too high, the bottom may be thin and the mouth may be thick. If the air pressure is too low, the mouth may be too thin or cannot be blown at all, but the mouth is missing. General blowing products include bottles and cans. Pressing is to press into the electronic tensile testing machine through the inner mold. It is a new material testing machine with the combination of electronic technology and mechanical transmission. The outer mold extrudes the glass frit. The gap between the two dies affects the thickness of the product, while the internal die is controlled by air pressure, so too high air pressure may reduce the gap between the two dies and make the bottom of the product thinner: if the air pressure is too small, it is the opposite. Generally, the cup of the straight cylinder is pressed. However, if the product is relatively high and the edge is required to be thin, it is usually blown. However, the thinnest part of this product is in the middle, so the middle part is easy to break. Centrifugal rotation, with the mold installed on the motor, through a certain speed of the mold to shake off the material for forming. If the electric speed is too small, it may not be able to be opened, resulting in incomplete products. If the speed is too high, the materials may be thrown out or all the materials may be thrown to the upper part, so that the upper end is thick and the bottom is thin. This method is generally used for strong objects. After the product is out of the mold, it needs to be clamped with pliers. If the pliers are rusty, the product may be stained with rust and cannot be removed. Therefore, it must be ensured that the pliers are clean and free of rust. Generally, the pliers are wiped with glass water or made of rust free materials. At this time, the general products can be subject to the subsequent process - edge burning. However, some products cannot be formed with one mold, but need to be welded again. The welding must be carried out when the product is just out of the mold, and the other part to be welded must be the molten material just picked out. Only in this way can the welding be done well, otherwise it is easy to be connected firmly or crack the product

fourth point: edge burning

the product has just come out of the mold. Generally, the mouth is not smooth. Instead, it should be burned smoothly with high temperature and more firepower

fifth point: Fire fading

the temperature of the product after being molded is very high. If it is natural and requires very high cooling, such as color, it will explode. Therefore, fire fading equipment should be used to slowly reduce the temperature. The fire removal equipment is a conveyor belt shape closed at the top and both sides. It is generally 10 meters long and about 1 meter wide. There are several different temperature zones. The initial temperature is generally the same as that of the molded product, i.e., degrees, and then gradually decreases. The final temperature is generally about 60 degrees. The fire removal time should not be too short, otherwise the product is very easy to crack, and the general products will not crack at that time, but will explode later or during transportation. 6、 After inspection, enter the later stage of processing, such as decals or frosting

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